Commercial road vehicles are currently subject to regular inspection so the situation in that sense is consistent with aircraft inspection.
Aircraft regulation is a bit more complex in general, in that individual aircraft have to be shown, at inception and regularly thereafter, that they confirm to the aircraft model's certified Type Design, I.e, no trick exhausts, go-faster stripes or high-lift cams.
Also, a significant portion of the certificate renewal process is about demonstrating through logs that the regular and preventative maintenance dictated under the Type Approval certificate have been carried out. I understand that the annual renewal process can be extended to up to 3 years if the aircraft is maintained by an independent (to the operator) certificated maintenance organisation.
The aircraft regulation framework has been worked on over the last 100 years to get to a situation where one in every 3/4 million flights results in a fatality. It covers not only aircraft certification, but also pilot certification.
Maybe the question to be drawn from the air regulatory framework is not the one you posed, but rather why isn't there a requirement for regular driver recertification when driver error is by far the largest contributing cause to serious incidents?