Well who would have thunk it. A few answers, though as usual many questions too.
'Jones' the soldier - real name Charles Widmore
Richard Alpert is 'really' old so he ain't just jumping between times and it was Locke who sent him to see himself when he was born.
The A Bomb is obviously very significant being presumably buried and encased in concrete somewhere on the Island (Swan hatch?)
And Desmond and Penny have a son Charlie (WHAT Charles Widmore! surely not)
Not to mention that it is almost certain that Ms Hawking is almost certainly Daniel's mother and probably was also the girl with the gun on the Island. But who could his father be (surely not Widmore?)
Also assuming Charlotte doesn't die I reckon her constant will turn out to be quite a revelation, buggered if I know who though