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From Dr Stein

To:

FCC Commissioners
U.S. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions
U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation

July 9, 2016

Topic: G5 millimeter wave technology (Sub Terahertz frequencies/ Sub-THz)

A group of physicists from the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, together with several physicians, have researched “G5” millimeter wave technology (Sub Terahertz frequencies) and its interaction with the human body. I am a physician who participated in this research.

Human sweat glands as helical antennas:

The study of human sweat glands as helical antennas conducted by our group in Prof. Feldman’s lab, began by looking at images of the skin created by optical coherence tomography (OCT), which revealed that the tips of the sweat ducts that expel the sweat from the gland to the pore at the surface of the skin have a helical structure (Knuttel et al, 2004; Lademann, Otberg et al. 2007; Tripathi et al, 2015). This, and the fact that the dielectric permittivity of the dermis is higher than that of the epidermis, leads one to assume that, as electromagnetic entities, the sweat ducts could be regarded as imperfect helical antennas (Feldman, et al. 2008, 2009; Kawase and Hayashi, 2011; Yang, Donnan et al. 2011; Hayut et al, 2013, 2014).

The prediction of this simulation was that there would be an influence of the sweat duct on reflected signal around 90 GHz and an even increased sensitivity in higher frequencies. Proton hopping was suggested as the phenomenon that causes the conductivity inside the sweat gland. Taking into consideration a drop in the electric potential caused by the difference in the pH values between the skin surface (pH=5.5) and the dermis (pH=6.9), one can posit the existence of an electromotive force that would provide the necessary additional charge flow in the duct.

Thus, the sweat ducts possess all the required features to reveal antenna-like behavior in the extremely high frequency band (EHF band or the millimeter/submillimeter band).

These assumptions were supported by a series of computer simulations which showed that the spectral response of the ducts indeed coincides with the prediction of the antenna theory.

Implications:

Computer simulations using the Finite Differences Time Domain (FDTD) method have clearly shown that sweat gland ducts are high absorption structures of mm-waves. SAR values were about one order of magnitude higher with the sweat gland ducts and highly localized to within the sweat gland ducts (Shafirstein and Moros, 2011). Temperatures computed using a bio-heat equation demonstrated that the temperature maximum was moved toward the epidermis which is populated by pain nerve fibers and heat-sensitive keratinocytes. This situation is closer to direct contact with a hot surface, indicating that exposure to high power GHz irradiation should result in a sudden acute pain response even without direct heating of the stratum corneum.

This phenomenon may potentially affect all humans and especially susceptible members of the public using or being exposed to communications devices in the sub-terahertz waveband.

It is advisable that the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principle be adopted for uses of this technology, while a major cross‑disciplinary effort is generated to train researchers in bioelectromagnetics and provide monitoring of potential health impacts of RF‑EMF.

Summary of conclusions:

(1) Public exposure to millimeter waves, in the sub-Terahertz frequency range, is currently less common. If these devices fill the public space they will affect everyone, including the more susceptible members of the public: babies, pregnant women, the elderly, the sick and electro hypersensitive individuals.

(2) Human sweat ducts transmit and perhaps also receive electromagnetic waves that reflect the person’s emotional state, as an extension of the sympathetic nervous system that innervates sweat ducts

(3) These newly suggested physiologic and psychological functions of human sweat ducts have not yet been researched by neurophysiologists or by psychologists

(4) Computer simulations have demonstrated that sweat glands concentrate sub-terahertz waves in human skin. Humans could sense these waves as heat. The use of sub-terahertz (Millimeter wave) communications technology (cellphones, Wi Fi, antennas) could cause humans to percept physical pain via nociceptors.

(5) Potentially, if G5 WI FI is spread in the public domain we may expect more of the health effects currently seen with RF/ microwave frequencies including many more cases of hypersensitivity (EHS), as well as many new complaints of physical pain and a yet unknown variety of neurologic disturbances.

(6) It will be possible to show a causal relationship between G5 technology and these specific health effects. The affected individuals may be eligible for compensation.

Respected members of the FCC and U.S. Senate Committees,

Please protect Public Health and vote against exposure of the public to harmful G5 technology.

Respectfully,

Dr. Yael Stein MD
Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel

Introduction:

Quickly changing technologies and intensive uses of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF)‑emitting phones pose a challenge to public health. Mobile phone users and uses and exposures to other wireless transmitting devices (WTDs) have increased in the past few years. Between 2000 and 2014, the number of active cell phone subscriptions has increased from 700 million to nearly 7 billion, among a global population of 7.2 billion people.

Uses of the millimeter wave bands include point-to-point communications, inter satellite links, and point-to-multipoint communications. Future 5G mobile phones and Wi Fi routers using millimeter waves are already under development. Because of shorter wavelengths, the band permits the use of smaller antennas than would be required for similar circumstances in the lower bands, to achieve the same high directivity and high gain. The net result is higher reuse of the spectrum, and higher density of users.

Health risks:

Besides higher risk of cancer, exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the radio/ microwave frequencies has been reported to affect: fertility in males and females, neurological effects on sleep quality, learning abilities and memory due to increased oxidative stress, to cause skin and gastrointestinal reactions, hypersensitivity phenomena (Electrohypersensitivity / EHS), and more.

Electrohypersensitivity / EHS is characterized by a variety of non-specific symptoms, which afflicted individuals attribute to exposure to electromagnetic fields.

The symptoms most commonly experienced include dermatological symptoms (redness, tingling, and burning sensations) as well as neurasthenic and vegetative symptoms (fatigue, tiredness, sleep disturbance, concentration difficulties, dizziness, nausea, heart palpitation, and digestive disturbances). The collection of symptoms is not part of any formally recognized medical syndrome, but it has been described in the medical literature as “a novel neurological syndrome.”

There is a very wide range of estimates of the prevalence of EHS in the general population. A survey of occupational medical centers estimated the prevalence of EHS to be a few individuals per million in the population. However, a survey of self-help groups yielded much higher estimates. Approximately 10% of reported cases of EHS were considered severe (WHO workshop on electromagnetic hypersensitivity, 2004).

Prevalence is rising following the ever-rising exposure of the general public to mobile and wireless technology. In Sweden, the prevalence of EHS was initially estimated at 1.5%, but a newer estimation indicates that 2.6–3.2% report EMF sensitivity (Hillert et al., 2002). In Austria, the prevalence was estimated at less than 2% in 1994, but in 2001 it had increased to 3.5% (Johansson, 2006). In Switzerland, 5% of the population has been estimated as EHS (Schröttner et al., 2008). In California, the prevalence of self-reported sensitivity to EMF was 3.2%, with 24.4% of those surveyed reporting sensitivity to chemicals (Kato and Johansson, 2012).

While the condition is still not formally recognized as a disease, in some countries (e.g. Sweden) it is formally acknowledged as a functional impairment, and people are eligible for compensation due to this condition.

Interactions of millimeter waves with living systems are believed to occur primarily on a subcellular or cellular level. Sub-THz and THz radiation may interact with cellular components at multiple levels, including chromosomes, DNA, genes and proteins. Older studies from the USSR and Eastern Europe as well as new studies have indicated that above 30 GHz there are frequency dependent biological effects.

References:

Feldman Y, Puzenko A, Ben Ishai P, Caduff A, Agranat AJ. Human skin as arrays of helical antennas in the millimeter and submillimeter wave range. Phys Rev Lett, 2008; 100(12):1-2

Feldman Y, Puzenko A, Ben Ishai P, Caduff A, Davidovich I, Sakran F, Agranat AJ. The electromagnetic response of human skin in the millimetre and submillimetre wave range. Phys Med Biol, 2009; 54(11):3341–3363

Gandhi OP, Morgan L, de Salles AA, Han YY, Herberman RB, Davis DL. Exposure limits:  the underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children. Electromagn Biol Med, 2012; 31(1):34–51

Hayut I et al. The Helical Structure of Sweat Ducts: Their Influence on the Electromagnetic Reflection Spectrum of the Skin. IEEE Trans Terahertz Sci Technol, 2013; 3(2):207-215

Johansson O. Electrohypersensitivity: a functional impairment due to an inaccessible environment. Rev Environ Health 2015; 30(4): 311–321

Kato Y, Johansson O. Reported functional impairments of electrohypersensitive Japanese: A questionnaire survey. Pathophysiology, 2012; 19(2):95–100

Kawase K,  Hayashi S. THz techniques for human skin measurement. Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), 2011 36th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz 2011) Houston, USA; 2011

Knuttel A, Bonev S, Knaak W. New method for evaluation of in vivo scattering and refractive index properties obtained with optical coherence tomography. J Biomed Opt, 2004; 9(2):265–273

Lademann J, Otberg N, et al. Application of optical non-invasive methods in skin physiology: a comparison of laser scanning microscopy and optical coherent tomography with histological analysis. Skin Res Technol, 2007; 13(2):119-132

McCarty DE, Carrubba S, Chesson AL, Frilot C, Gonzalez-Toledo E, Marino AA. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: evidence for a novel neurological syndrome. Int J Neurosci, 2011; 121(12):670–676

Schröttner J, Leitgeb N. Sensitivity to electricity-temporal changes in Austria. BMC Public Health, 2008; 8:310

Shafirstein G, Moros EG. Modelling millimetre wave propagation and absorption in a high resolution skin model: The effect of sweat glands. Phys Med Biol, 2011; 56(5):1329–1339

Tripathi SR,  Miyata E,  Ben Ishai P,  Kawase K. Morphology of human sweat ducts observed by optical coherence tomography and their frequency of resonance in the terahertz frequency region. Sci Rep, 2015; 5:9071

World Health Organization. Electromagnetic fields and public health: mobile phones. Fact sheet N°193. June 2011 http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs193/en/

World Health Organization. Electrohypersensitivity Fact Sheet http://www.who.int/peh-emf/publications/facts/fs296/en

Yang B, Donnan RS, Zhou M, Kingravi AA. Reassessment of the electromagnetic reflection response of human skin at W-band. Opt Lett. 2011 Nov 1;36(21):4203-5

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“Electromagnetic Fields: A Hazard to Your Health?” on Cell Tower Radiation

“In recent years, concern has increased about exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic radiation emitted from cell phones and phone station antennae. An Egyptian study confirmed concerns that living nearby mobile phone base stations increased the risk for developing: 

  • Headaches
  • Memory problems
  • Dizziness
  • Depression
  • Sleep problems

Short-term exposure to these fields in experimental studies have not always shown negative effects, but this does not rule out cumulative damage from these fields, so larger studies over longer periods are needed to help understand who is at risk. In large studies, an association has been observed between symptoms and exposure to these fields in the everyday environment.”

American Academy of Pediatrics

 

Compilation of Research Studies on Cell Tower Radiation and Health

Anthony B. Miller, L. Lloyd Morgan, Iris Udasin, Devra Lee Davis, Cancer epidemiology update, following the 2011 IARC evaluation of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (Monograph 102), Environmental Research, Volume 167, 2018, Pages 673-683, ISSN 0013-9351

Radiofrequency radiation is emitted by cell towers. This review paper concludes that “Based on the evidence reviewed it is our opinion that IARC’s current categorization of RFR as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B) should be upgraded to Carcinogenic to Humans (Group 1).”

 

Zothansiama, et al. “Impact of radiofrequency radiation on DNA damage and antioxidants in peripheral blood lymphocytes of humans residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations.”Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 36.3 (2017): 295-305.

  • This study evaluated effects in the human blood of individuals living near mobile phone base stations (within 80 meters) compared with healthy controls (over 300 meters). The study found higher radiofrequency radiation exposures and statistically significant differences in the blood of people living closer to the cellular antennas. The  group living closer to the antennas had for example, statistically significant higher frequency of micronuclei and a rise in lipid peroxidation in their blood. These changes are considered biomarkers predictive of cancer.

Meo, S. A., Almahmoud, M., Alsultan, Q., Alotaibi, N., Alnajashi, I., & Hajjar, W. M. (2018). Mobile Phone Base Station Tower Settings Adjacent to School Buildings: Impact on Students’ Cognitive Health. American Journal of Men’s Health.

  • High exposure to RF-EMF produced by mobile phone base station towers was associated with delayed fine and gross motor skills, spatial working memory, and attention in school adolescents compared to students who were exposed to low RF-EMF.

Long-term exposure to microwave radiation provokes cancer growth: evidences from radars and mobile communication systems. Yakymenko (2011) Exp Oncology,  33(2):62-70.

  • Even a year of operation of a powerful base transmitting station for mobile communication reportedly resulted in a dramatic increase of cancer incidence among population living nearby.  

Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Radiation (RF-EMFR) Generated by Mobile Phone Base Stations (MPBS)with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus , Sultan Ayoub Meo et al, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2015

  • Elementary school students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS had a significantly higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus relative to their counterparts who were exposed to lower RF-EMFR.  

Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations Abdel-Rassoul et al, Neurotoxicology, 2007

  • This study found that living nearby mobile phone base stations (cell antennas) increased the risk for neuropsychiatric problems such as headaches, memory problems, dizziness, tremors,depression, sleep problems and some changes in the performance of neurobehavioral functions.  

Meo SA,  Almahmoud M, Alsultan Q, Alotaibi N, Alnajashi I, Hajjar WM, Mobile Phone Base Station Tower Settings Adjacent to School Buildings: Impact on Students’ Cognitive Health. Am J Mens Health. 2018 Dec 7:1557988318816914. doi: 10.1177/1557988318816914.

  • This study investigated the impact of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) radiation generated by mobile phone base station towers (MPBSTs) on cognitive functions. Two hundred and seventeen volunteer male students aged between 13 and 16 registered from two different intermediate schools: 124 students were from School 1 and 93 students were from School 2. The MPBSTs were located within 200 m from the schoolbuildings. In School 1, RF-EMF was 2.010 µW/cm2 with a frequency of 925 MHz and in School 2, RF-EMF was 10.021 µW/cm2 with a frequency of 925 MHz. Students were exposed to EMFR for 6 hr a day, 5 days a week for a total period of 2 years. The Narda Safety Test Solution device SRM-3006 was used to measure RF-EMF in both schools, and cognitive functions tasks were measured by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Significant impairment in Motor Screening Task (MOT; p = .03) and Spatial Working Memory (SWM) task ( p = .04) was identified among the group of students who were exposed to high RF-EMF produced by MPBSTs. High exposure to RF-EMF produced by MPBSTs was associated with delayed fine and gross motor skills, spatial working memory, and attention in school adolescents compared to students who were exposed to low RF-EMF.

Biological Effects from Exposure to Electromagnetic Radiation Emitted by Cell Tower Base Stations and Other Antenna Arrays, Levitt & Lai, Environmental Reviews, 2010

  • This review of 100 studies found approximately 80% showed biological effects near towers. “Both anecdotal reports and some epidemiology studies have found headaches, skin rashes, sleep disturbances, depression, decreased libido, increased rates of suicide, concentration problems, dizziness, memory changes, increased risk of cancer, tremors, and other neurophysiological effects in populations near base stations.”  

 

Mortality by neoplasia and cellular telephone base stations. Dode et al. (Brazil), Science of the Total Environment, Volume 409, Issue 19, 1 September 2011, Pages 3649–3665

  • This 10 year study on cell phone antennas by the Municipal Health Department in Belo Horizonte and several universities in Brazil found a clearly elevated relative risk of cancer mortality at residential distances of 500 meters or less from cell phone transmission towers. Shortly after this study was published, the city prosecutor sued several cell phone companies and requested that almost half of the cities antennas be removed. Many antennas were dismantled.

 

Epidemiological Evidence for a Health Risk from Mobile Phone Base Stations Khurana, Hardell et al., International Journal of  Occupational Environmental Health, Vol 16(3):263-267, 2010

  • A review of 10 epidemiological studies that assessed for negative health effects of mobile phone base stations (4 studies were from Germany, and 1 each from Austria, Egypt, France, Israel, Poland, Spain) found that seven showed altered neurobehavioral effects near cell tower and three showed increased cancer incidence. 
    The review also found that eight of the 10 studies reported increased prevalence of adverse neurobehavioral symptoms or cancer in populations living at distances < 500 meters from base stations.   None of the studies reported exposure above accepted international guidelines, suggesting that current guidelines may be inadequate in protecting the health of human populations.

 

Health effects of living near mobile phone base transceiver station (BTS) antennae: a report from Isfahan, Iran.  Shahbazi-Gahrouei et al, Electromagnetic Biology Medicine, 2013.

  • This  cross-sectional study found the symptoms of nausea, headache, dizziness, irritability, discomfort, nervousness, depression, sleep disturbance, memory loss and lowering of libido were statistically increased in people living closer than 300 m from cell antennas as compared to those living farther away. The study concludes that “antennas should not be sited closer than 300 m to people to minimize exposure.”

 

How does long term exposure to base stations and mobile phones affect human hormone profiles?Eskander EF et al, (2011), Clin Biochem

  • RFR exposures significantly impacted ACTH, cortisol, thyroid hormones, prolactin for  females, and testosterone levels for males.

 

Investigation on the health of people living near mobile telephone relay stations: Incidence according to distance and sex Santini et al, 2002 , Pathol Bio

  • People living near mobile phone masts reported more symptoms of headache, sleep disturbance, discomfort, irritability, depression, memory loss and concentration problems the closer they lived to the installation.  Study authors recommend that the minimal distance of people from cellular phone base stations should not be < 300 m.

 

Navarro EA, Segura J, Portoles M, Gomez-Perretta C, The Microwave Syndrome: A preliminary Study. 2003 (Spain) Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, Volume 22, Issue 2, (2003): 161 – 169

  • Statistically significant positive exposure-response associations between RFR intensity and fatigue, irritability, headaches, nausea, loss of appetite, sleeping disorder, depressive tendency, feeling of discomfort, difficulty in concentration, loss of memory, visual disorder, dizziness and cardiovascular problems.  

 

Two Important Animal Studies on Radiofrequency Radiation

These studies indicate that government limits are non protective. Government limits are based on the assumption that radiofrequency radiation is only harmful at thermal levels. However, the cancers developed in animals in these studies at radiation levels that were non thermal.

 

Belpoggi et al. 2018, “Report of final results regarding brain and heart tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed from prenatal life until natural death to mobile phone radiofrequency field representative of a 1.8 GHz base station environmental emission” Environmental Research Journal

  • Researchers with the renowned Ramazzini Institute (RI) in Italy performed a large-scale lifetime study of lab animals exposed to environmental levels (comparable to allowable limits from cell towers) of RFR radiation and found the rats developed increased cancers- schwannoma of the heart in male rats. This study confirms the $25 million US National Toxicology Program study which used much higher levels of cell phone radiofrequency (RF) radiation, but also reported finding the same unusual cancers as the Ramazzini- schwannoma of the heart in male rats. In addition, the RI study of cell tower radiation also found increases in malignant brain (glial) tumors in female rats and precancerous conditions including Schwann cells hyperplasia in both male and female rats.
  • “Our findings of cancerous tumors in rats exposed to environmental levels of RF are consistent with and reinforce the results of the US NTP studies on cell phone radiation, as both reported increases in the same types of tumors of the brain and heart in Sprague-Dawley rats. Together, these studies provide sufficient evidence to call for the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) to re-evaluate and re-classify their conclusions regarding the carcinogenic potential of RFR in humans,” said Fiorella Belpoggi PhD, study author and RI Director of Research.
  • The Ramazzini study exposed 2448 Sprague-Dawley rats from prenatal life until their natural death to “environmental” cell tower radiation for 19 hours per day (1.8 GHz GSM radiofrequency radiation (RFR) of 5, 25 and 50 V/m). RI exposures mimicked base station emissions like those from cell tower antennas, and exposure levels were far less than those used in the NTP studies of cell phone radiation.
  • Watch Press Conference

 

Wyde, Michael, et al. “National Toxicology Program Carcinogenesis Studies of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation in Hsd: Sprague Dawley® SD rats (Whole Body Exposure).Statement on conclusions of the peer review meeting by NIEHS, released after external peer review meeting and the DNA damage presentation.

  • This 25 million dollar study is the most complex study completed by the NTP and the world’s largest rodent study on radiofrequency radiation exposure to date which found long term exposure at non thermal levels associated with brain cancer and schwannomas of the heart in male rats. In addition damage to heart was found in all exposure levels. The full report is expected to be released in Fall 2018.

 

More Important Studies on Cell Tower Radiation  

 

Cindy L. Russell, 5 G wireless telecommunications expansion: Public health and environmental implications, Environmental Research, 2018, ISSN 0013-9351

  • Radiofrequency radiation (RF) is increasingly being recognized as a new form of environmental pollution.  This article  reviews relevant electromagnetic frequencies, exposure standards and current scientific literature on the health implications of 2G, 3G, 4G and 5G.
  • Effects can also be non-linear. Because this is the first generation to have cradle-to-grave lifespan exposure to this level of man-made microwave (RF EMR) radiofrequencies, it will be years or decades before the true health consequences are known. Precaution in the roll out of this new technology is strongly indicated.

 

Noa Betzalel, Paul Ben Ishai, Yuri Feldman, The human skin as a sub-THz receiver – Does 5G pose a danger to it or not?, Environmental Research, Volume 163, 2018, Pages 208-216, ISSN 0013-9351,  

  • Researchers have developed a unique simulation tool of human skin, taking into account the skin multi-layer structure together with the helical segment of the sweat duct embedded in it. They found that the presence of the sweat duct led to a high specific absorption rate (SAR) of the skin in extremely high frequency band that will be used in 5G. “One must consider the implications of human immersion in the electromagnetic noise, caused by devices working at the very same frequencies as those, to which the sweat duct (as a helical antenna) is most attuned. We are raising a warning flag against the unrestricted use of sub-THz technologies for communication, before the possible consequences for public health are explored.”

Mobile phone infrastructure regulation in Europe: Scientific challenges and human rights protectionClaudia Roda, Susan Perry, Environmental Science & Policy, Volume 37, March 2014, Pages 204-214.

  • This article was published in Environmental Science & Policy by human rights experts. It argues that cell tower placement is a human rights issue for children.
  • “We argue that (1) because protection of children is a high threshold norm in Human Right  law and (2) the binding language of the Convention on the Rights of the Child obliges States Parties to provide a higher standard of protection for children than adults, any widespread or systematic form of environmental pollution that poses a long-term threat to a child’s rights to life, development or health may constitute an international human rights violation.
  • In particular we have explained how the dearth of legislation to regulate the installation of base stations  (cell towers) in close proximity to children’s facilities and schools clearly constitutes a human rights concern according to the language of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, a treaty that has been ratified by all European States.

 

SAFETY ZONE DETERMINATION FOR WIRELESS CELLULAR TOWER Nyakyi et al, Tanzania (2013)

  • This research looked at the radiation that cell towers emit and states a safety zone is needed around the towers to ensure safe sleeping areas. The authors state that “respective authorities should ensure that people reside far from the tower by 120m or more depending on the power transmitted to avoid severe health effect.”

 

A cross-sectional case control study on genetic damage in individuals residing in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station. Ghandi et al, 2014 (India):

  • This cross-sectional case control study on genetic damage in individuals living near cell towers found genetic damage parameters of DNA were significantly elevated. The authors state,” The genetic damage evident in the participants of this study needs to be addressed against future disease-risk, which in addition to neurodegenerative disorders, may lead to cancer.”

 

Human disease resulting from exposure to electromagnetic fields, Carpenter, D. O. Reviews on Environmental Health, Volume 28, Issue 4, Pages 159172.

  • This review summarizes the evidence stating that excessive exposure to magnetic fields from power lines and other sources of electric current increases the risk of development of some cancers and neurodegenerative diseases, and that excessive exposure to RF radiation increases risk of cancer, male infertility, and neurobehavioral abnormalities.

 

Signifikanter Rückgang klinischer Symptome nach Senderabbau – eine Interventionsstudie. (English-Significant Decrease of Clinical Symptoms after Mobile Phone Base Station Removal – An Intervention Study) Tetsuharu Shinjyo and Akemi Shinjyo, 2014 Umwelt-Medizin-Gesellschaft, 27(4), S. 294-301.

  • Japanese study Showed Statistically Significant Adverse Health Effects from electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone base stations. Residents of a condominium building that had cell tower antennas on the rooftop were examined before and after cell tower antennas were removed. In 1998, 800MHz cell antennas were installed, then later in 2008 a second set of antennas (2GHz) were installed.  Medical exams and interviews were conducted before and after the antennas were removed in 2009 on 107 residents of the building who had no prior knowledge about possible. These results lead researchers to question the construction of mobile phone base stations on top of buildings such as condominiums or houses.

 

Effect of GSTM1 and GSTT1 Polymorphisms on Genetic Damage in Humans Populations Exposed to Radiation From Mobile Towers. Gulati S, Yadav A, Kumar N, Kanupriya, Aggarwal NK, Kumar R, Gupta R., Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2015 Aug 5. [Epub ahead of print]

  • In our study, 116 persons exposed to radiation from mobile towers and 106 control subjects were genotyped for polymorphisms in the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction method. DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes was determined using alkaline comet assay in terms of tail moment (TM) value and micronucleus assay in buccal cells (BMN). Our results indicated that TM value and BMN frequency were higher in an exposed population compared with a control group and the difference is significant. In our study, we found that different health symptoms, such as depression, memory status, insomnia, and hair loss, were significantly associated with exposure to EMR. Damaging effects of nonionizing radiation result from the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent radical formation and from direct damage to cellular macromolecules including DNA.

 

Subjective symptoms, sleeping problems, and cognitive performance in subjects living near mobile phone base stations, Hutter HP et al, (May 2006), Occup Environ Med. 2006 May;63(5):307‐13

  • Found a significant relationship between some cognitive symptoms and measured power density in 365 subjects; highest for headaches. Perceptual speed increased, while accuracy decreased insignificantly with increasing exposure levels.

 

Oberfeld, A.E. Navarro, M. Portoles, C. Maestu, C. Gomez-Perretta, The microwave syndrome: further aspects of a Spanish study,

  • A health survey was carried out in La Ñora, Murcia, Spain, in the vicinity of two GSM 900/1800 MHz cellular phone base stations. The adjusted (sex, age, distance) logistic regression model showed statistically significant positive exposure-response associations between the E-field and the following variables: fatigue, irritability, headaches, nausea, loss of appetite, sleeping disorder, depressive tendency, feeling of discomfort, difficulty in concentration, loss of memory, visual disorder, dizziness and cardiovascular problems.

 

Bortkiewicz et al, 2004 (Poland), Subjective symptoms reported by people living in the vicinity of cellular phone base stations: review,Med Pr.2004;55(4):345-51.

  • Residents close to mobile phone masts reported: more incidences of circulatory problems, sleep disturbances, irritability, depression, blurred vision and concentration difficulties the nearer they lived to the mast.
  • The performed studies showed the relationship between the incidence of individual symptoms, the level of exposure, and the distance between a residential area and a base station.

 

Wolf R and Wolf D, Increased Incidence of Cancer Near a Cell-phone Transmitter Station, International Journal of Cancer Prevention, (Israel) VOLUME 1, NUMBER 2, APRIL 2004

  • A significant higher rate of cancer (300% increase) among all residents living within 300m radius of a mobile phone mast for between three and seven years was detected.
  • 900% cancer increase among women alone
  • In the area of exposure (area A) eight cases of different kinds of cancer were diagnosed in a period of only one year. This rate of cancers was compared both with the rate of 31 cases per 10,000 per year in the general population and the 2/1222 rate recorded in the nearby clinic (area B). The study indicates an association between increased incidence of cancer and living in proximity to a cell-phone transmitter station.

 

Changes of Neurochemically Important Transmitters under the influence of modulated RF fields – A Long Term Study under Real Life Conditions(Germany), Bucher and Eger, 2011

  • German study showing elevated levels of stress hormones (adrenaline, noradrenaline), and lowered dopamine and PEA levels in urine in area residents during 1st 6 months of cell tower installation. Even after 1.5 years, the levels did not return to normal.

 

The Influence of Being Physically Near to a Cell Phone Transmission Mast on the Incidence of Cancer (Umwelt·Medizin·Gesellschaft 17,4 2004) Eger et al, 2004 (Germany)

  • 200% increase in the incidence of malignant tumors was found after five years’ exposure in people living within 400m radius of a mobile phone mast. The proportion of newly developing cancer cases is significantly higher among patients who live within 400 meters of a cell phone transmitter. Early age of cancer diagnosis.

 

Microwave electromagnetic fields act by activating voltage-gated calcium channels: why the current international safety standards do not predict biological hazard. Martin L. Pall. Recent Res. Devel. Mol. Cell Biol. 7(2014).

  • “It can be seen from the above that 10 different well-documented microwave EMF effects can be easily explained as being a consequence of EMF VGCC activation: oxidative stress, elevated single and double strand breaks in DNA, therapeutic responses to such EMFs, breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, cancer, melatonin loss, sleep dysfunction, male infertility and female infertility.”

 

Pall ML. 2015. Microwave frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) produce widespread neuropsychiatric effects including depression. J. Chem. Neuroanat. 2015 Aug 20.

  • Non-thermal microwave/lower frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) act via voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation.
  • Two U.S. government reports from the 1970s to 1980s provide evidence for many neuropsychiatric effects of non-thermal microwave EMFs, based on occupational exposure studies. 18 more recent epidemiological studies, provide substantial evidence that microwave EMFs from cell/mobile phone base stations, excessive cell/mobile phone usage and from wireless smart meters can each produce similar patterns of neuropsychiatric effects, with several of these studies showing clear dose–response relationships.
  • Lesser evidence from 6 additional studies suggests that short wave, radio station, occupational and digital TV antenna exposures may produce similar neuropsychiatric effects. Among the more commonly reported changes are sleep disturbance/insomnia, headache, depression/depressive symptoms, fatigue/tiredness, dysesthesia, concentration/attention dysfunction, memory changes, dizziness, irritability, loss of appetite/body weight, restlessness/anxiety, nausea, skin burning/tingling/dermographism and EEG changes. In summary, then, the mechanism of action of microwave EMFs, the role of the VGCCs in the brain, the impact of non-thermal EMFs on the brain, extensive epidemiological studies performed over the past 50 years, and five criteria testing for causality, all collectively show that various non-thermal microwave EMF exposures produce diverse neuropsychiatric effects.
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http://www.tetrawatch.net/papers/naila.pdf

umwelt·medizin·gesellschaft | 17 | 4/2004

1 The Influence of Being Physically Near to a Cell Phone Transmission Mast on the Incidence of Cancer Horst Eger, Klaus Uwe Hagen, Birgitt Lucas, Peter Vogel, Helmut Voit Published in Umwelt·Medizin·Gesellschaft 17,4 2004, as: ‘Einfluss der räumlichen Nähe von Mobilfunksendeanlagen auf die Krebsinzidenz’

Summary Following the call by Wolfram König, President of the Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz (Federal Agency for radiation protection), to all doctors of medicine to collaborate actively in the assessment of the risk posed by cellular radiation, the aim of our study was to examine whether people living close to cellular transmitter antennas were exposed to a heightened risk of taking ill with malignant tumors. The basis of the data used for the survey were PC files of the case histories of patients between the years 1994 and 2004. While adhering to data protection, the personal data of almost 1,000 patients were evaluated for this study, which was completed without any external financial support. It is intended to continue the project in the form of a register. The result of the study shows that the proportion of newly developing cancer cases was significantly higher among those patients who had lived during the past ten years at a distance of up to 400 metres from the cellular transmitter site, which has been in operation since 1993, compared to those patients living further away, and that the patients fell ill on average 8 years earlier. In the years 1999-2004, ie after five years’ operation of the transmitting installation, the relative risk of getting cancer had trebled for the residents of the area in the proximity of the installation compared to the inhabitants of Naila outside the area.

The rapid increase in the use of mobile telephony in the last few years has led to an increasing number of cell phone transmission masts being positioned in or near to residential areas. With this in mind, the president of the German governmental department for protection against electromagnetic radiation (Bundesamtes für Strahlenschutz) Wolfram König, has challenged all doctors to actively help in the work to estimate the risks from such cell phone masts. The goal of this investigation was therefore to prove whether on not people living near to cell phone masts have a higher risk of developing cancerous tumours.

The basic data was taken from the medical records held by the local medical authority (Krankenkasse) for the years 1994 to 2004. This material is stored on computer. In this voluntary study the records of roughly 1,000 patients from Naila (Oberfranken) were used, respecting the associated data protection laws. The results from this study show a significantly increased likelihood of developing cancer for the patients that have lived within 400 metres of the cell phone transmission mast (active since 1993) over the last ten years, in comparison to those patients that live further away. In addition, the patients that live within 400 metres tend to develop the cancers at a younger age. For the years 1999 to 2004 (ie after five or more years of living with the cell phone transmission mast), the risk of developing cancer for those living within 400 metres of the mast in comparison to those living outside this area, was three times as high. Introduction A series of studies available before this investigation provided strong evidence of health risks and increased cancer risk associated with physical proximity to radio transmission masts.

Haider et al. reported in 1993 in the Moosbrunn study frequent psychovegetive symptoms below the current safety limit for electromagnetic waves (1). In 1995, Abelin et al. in the Swiss- Schwarzenburg study found dose dependent sleep problems (5:1) and depression (4:1) at a shortwave transmitter station that has been in operation since 1939 (2). In many studies an increased risk of developing leukaemia has been found; in children near transmitter antennas for Radio and Television in Hawaii (3); increased cancer cases and general mortality in the area of Radio and Television transmitter antennas in Australia (4); and in England, 9 times more leukaemia cases were diagnosed in people who live in a nearby (2 umwelt·medizin·gesellschaft | 17 | 4/2004) area to the Sutton Coldfield transmitter antennas (5).

In a second study, concentrating on 20 transmitter antennas in England, a significant increased leukaemia risk was found (6). The Cherry study (7) indicates an association between an increase in cancer and living in proximity to a transmitter station. According to a study of the transmitter station of Radio Vatican, there were 2.2 times more leukaemia cases in children within a radius of 6 km, and adult mortality from leukaemia also increased (8). In 1997 Goldsmith published the Lilienfeld-study that indicated 4 times more cancer cases in the staff of the American Embassy in Moscow following microwave radiation during the cold war. The dose was low and below the German limit (9). The three studies of symptoms indicated a significant correlation between illness and physical proximity to radio transmission masts.

A study by Santini et al. in France resulted in an association between irritability, depression, dizziness (within 100m) and tiredness within 300m of a cell phone transmitter station (10).

In Austria there was an association between field strength and cardiovascular symptoms (11) and in Spain a study indicates an association between radiation, headache, nausea, loss of appetite, unwellness, sleep disturbance, depression, lack of concentration and dizziness (12).

The human body physically absorbs microwaves. This leads to rotation of dipole molecules and to inversion transitions (13), causing a warming effect. The fact that the human body transmits microwave radiation at a very low intensity means that since every transmitter represents a receiver and transmitter at the same time, we know the human body also acts as a receiver.

In Germany, the maximum safe limit for high frequency microwave radiation is based on purely thermal effects. These limits are one thousand billion times higher than the natural radiation in these frequencies that reaches us from the sun.

The following study examines whether there is also an increased cancer risk close to cellular transmitter antennas in the frequency range 900 to 1800 MHz. Prior to this study there were no published results for longterm exposure (10 years) for this frequency range and its associated effects to be revealed. So far, no followup monitoring of the state of health of such a residential population has been systematically undertaken. Materials and Methods Study area In June 1993, cellular transmitter antennas were permitted by the Federal Postal Administration in the Southern German city of Naila and became operational in September 1993. The GSM transmitter antenna has a power of 15 dbW per channel in the 935MHz frequency range. The total transmission time for the study period is ca. 90,000 hours. In December 1997 there followed an additional installation from another company. The details are found in an unpublished report, appendix page 1-3 (14). To compare results an ‘inner’ and ‘outer’ area were defined. The inner area covered the land that was within a distance of 400 metres from the cellular transmitter site. The outer area covered the land beyond 400 metres. The average distance of roads surveyed in the inner area (nearer than 400m) was 266m and in the outer area (further than 400m) 1,026m. Fig. 1 shows the position of the cellular transmitter sites I and 2, surrounded by circle of radius 400 metres. The geographical situation shows the transmitter sites (560m) are the highest point of the landscape, which falls away to 525m at a distance of 450m. From the height and tilt angle of the transmitter it is possible to calculate the distance where the transmitter’s beam of greatest intensity strikes the ground (see Fig. 2). The highest radiation values are in areas of the main Fig. 1: Schematic plan of the antenna sites a : angle of downtilt beam of greatest intensity (m) h : height of mast D : distance at which main beam strikes ground (m) Fig. 2: From the mast height h and the downtilt angle a, the distance D at which the main beam reaches ground is given by D = tan(90-a) × h umwelt·medizin·gesellschaft | 17 | 4/2004 3 beam where it hits the ground and from the expected associated local reflection; from this point the intensity of radiation falls off with the square of the distance from the transmitter. In Naila the main beam hits the ground at 350m with a beam angle of 6 degrees (15). In the inner area, additional emissions are caused by the secondary lobes of the transmitter; this means in comparison that from purely mathematical calculations the outer area has significantly reduced radiation intensity. The calculations from computer simulations and the measurements from the Bavaria agency for the environmental protection, both found that the intensity of radiation was a factor of 100 higher in the inner area as compared to the outer area. The measurements of all transmitter stations show that the intensity of radiation from the cell phone transmitter station in Naila in the inner area was higher than the other measurement shown in the previous studies of electromagnetic fields from radio, television or radar (14).

The study StSch 4314 from the ECOLOG Institute indicates an association between a vertical and horizontal distance from the transmitter station and expected radiation intensity on the local people (16). The reason for setting a distance of 400m for the differentiation point is partly due to physical considerations, and partly due to the study of Santini et al. who chose 300m (10). Data Gathering Similar residential streets in the inner area and outer areas were selected at random. The large old people’s home in the inner area was excluded from the study because of the age of the inhabitants. Data gathering covered nearly 90% of the local residents, because all four GPs in Naila took part in this study over 10 years. Every team researched the names of the patients from the selected streets that had been ill with tumours since 1994. The condition was that all patients had been living during the entire observation time of 10 years at the same address. The data from patients was handled according to data protection in an anonymous way. The data was evaluated for gender, age, tumour type and start of illness. All cases in the study were based on concrete results from tissue analysis. The selection of patents for the study was always done in exactly the same way. Self-selection was not allowed. Also the subjective opinion of patients that the radio mast detrimentally affected their health has not affected this study. Since patients with cancer do not keep this secret from GPs, it was possible to gain a complete data set. Population study In the areas where data was collected 1,045 residents were registered in 31.12.2003.

The registration statistics for Naila at the beginning of the study (1.1.1994) show the number of old people in the inner and outer areas, as shown in Table 1. The average age at the beginning of the study (1.1.1994) in both the inner and outer areas was 40.2 years. In the study period between 1994-2004, 34 new cases of cancer where documented out of 967 patients (Table 3). The study covered nearly 90% of local residents. The average age of the residents in Naila is one year more than that of the study due to the effects of the old people’s home. From the 9,472 residents who are registered in Naila, 4,979 (52.6%) are women and 4,493 (47.4%) are men. According to the register office, in 1.1.1994 in the outer area, the percentage was 45.4% male and 54.5% female, and in the inner area 45.3% male and 54.6% female. The number of people who are over 60 years old is shown in Table 2. The social differences in Naila are small. Big social differences like in the USA do not exist here. There is also no ethnic diversity. In 1994 in Naila the percentage of foreigners was 4%. Naila has no heavy industry, and in the inner area there are neither high voltage cable nor electric trains. Results Results are first shown for the entire 10 year period from 1994 until 2004. Secondly, the last five-year period 1999 to 2004 is considered separately. Period 1994 to 2004 As a null hypothesis it was checked to see if the physical distance from the mobile transmission mast had no effect on the number cancer cases in the selected population, ie that for both the group nearer than 400 metres and the group further than 400 metres the chance of developing cancer was the same. The relative frequencies of cancer in the form of a matrix are shown in Table 3. The statistical test method used on this data was the chi-squared test with Yates’s correction. Using this method we obtained the value of 6.27, which is over the critical value of 3.84 for a Period 1994-2004 Inner area Outer area total new cases of cancers 18 16 34 with no new cancer 302 631 933 total 320 647 967 Table 3 : numbers of patients with and without cancers, 1994-2004 female male total Inner area 41.48 38.70 40.21 Outer area 41.93 38.12 40.20 Naila total 43.55 39.13 41.45

Table 1 : Overview of average ages at the beginning of the study in 1994 1994 inner 22.4% outer 2.8% Naila total 24.8% 2004 inner 26.3% outer 26.7% Table 2 : Proportion of patients aged over 60 4 umwelt·medizin·gesellschaft | 17 | 4/2004 statistical significance of 0.05). This means the null hypothesis that both groups within the 400-metre radius of the mast and beyond the 400 metre radius, have the same chance of developing cancer, can be rejected with a 95% level of confidence. With a statistical significance of 0.05, an even more significant difference was observed in the rate of new cancer cases between the two groups. Calculating over the entire study period of 1994 until 2004, based on the incidence matrix (Table 3) we arrive at a relative risk factor of 2.27 (quotient of proportion for each group, eg 18/320 in the strongly exposed inner area, against 16/647 in the lower exposed comparison group). If expressed as an odds ratio, the relationship of the chance of getting cancer between strongly exposed and the less exposed is 2.35. The following results show clearly that inhabitants who live close to transmitter antennas compared to inhabitants who live outside the 400m zone, double their risk of developing cancer. In addition, the average age of developing cancer was 64.1 years in the inner area whereas in the outer area the average age was 72.6 years, a difference of 8.5 years. That means during the 10 year study that in the inner area (within 400 metres of the radio mast) tumours appear at a younger age.

In Germany the average age of developing cancer is approximately 66.5 years, among men it is approximately 66 and among women, 67 (18). Over the years of the study the time trend for new cancer cases shows a high annual constant value (Table 4). It should be noted that the number of people in the inner area is only half that of the outer area, and therefore the absolute numbers of cases is smaller. Table 7 shows the types of tumour that have developed in the cases of the inner area. Period 1994 to 1999 For the first five years of the radio transmission mast operation (1994-1998) there was no significant increased risk of getting cancer within the inner area as compared to the outer area (Table 5). Period 1999 to 2004 Under the biologically plausible assumption that cancer caused by detrimental external factors will require a time of several years before it will be diagnosed, we now concentrate on the last five years of the study between 1999 and 2004. At the start of this period the transmitter had been in operation for 5 years. The results for this period are shown in Table 6. The chisquared test result for this data (with Yates’s correction) is 6.77 and is over the critical value of 6.67 (statistical significance 0.01). This means, with 99% level of confidence, that there is a statistically proven difference between development of cancer between the inner group and outer group. The relative risk of 3.29 revealed that there was 3 times more risk of developing cancer in the inner area than the outer area during this time period. The odds-ratio 3.38 (VI 95% 1.39-8.25, 99% 1.05-10.91) allows us with 99% confidence to say that the difference observed here is not due to some random statistical effect.

Discussion Exactly the same system was used to gather data in the inner area and outer areas. The medical chip card, which has been in use for 10 years, enables the data to be processed easily. The four participating GPs examined the illness of 90% of Naila’s inhabitants over the last 10 years. The basic data for this study were based on direct examination results of patients extracted from the medical chip cards, which record also the diagnosis and treatment. The study population is (in regards to age, sex and cancer risk) comparable, and therefore statistically neutral. The study deals only with people who have been living permanently at the same address for the entire study period and therefore inner area: of the 320 people outer area: of the 647 people No. of cases of tumours per year of study total cases per 1,000 total cases per 1,000 1994 — — I 1.5 1995 — — — — 1996 II 6.3 I 1.5 1997 I 3.1 III 4.6 1998 II 6.3 III 4.6 1999 II 6.3 I 1.5 2000 IIIII 15.6 I 1.5 2001 II 6.3 II 3.1 2002 II 6.3 II 3.1 2003-3/2004 II 6.3 II 3.1

Table 4 : Summary of the total tumours occurring per year (no. and per thousand) Period 1994-1999 Inner area Outer area total new cases of cancers 5 8 13 with no new cancer 315 639 954 total 320 647 967 Table 5 : numbers of patients with and without cancers, 1994-1999 Period 1999-2004 Inner area Outer area total new cases of cancers 13 8 31 with no new cancer 307 639 946 total 320 647 967 Table 6 : numbers of patients with and without cancers, 1999-2004 umwelt·medizin·gesellschaft | 17 | 4/2004 5 have the same duration of exposure regardless of whether they are in the inner area or outer area. The result of the study shows that the proportion of newly developing cancer cases was significantly higher (p0.01). The division into inner area and outer area groups was clearly defined at the beginning of the study by the distance to the cell phone transmission mast. According to physical considerations people living close to cellular transmitter antennas were exposed to heightened transmitted radiation intensity. Both calculated and empirical measurements revealed that the intensity of radiation is 100 times higher in the inner area compared to the outer area.

According to the research StSch 4314 the horizontal and vertical position in regards to the transmitter antenna is the most important criterion in defining the radiation intensity area on inhabitants (16). The layered epidemiological assessment method used in this study is also used in assessment of possible chemical environmental effects. In this case the layering is performed in regards to the distance from the cell phone transmitter station. Using this method it has been shown that there is a significant difference in probability of developing new cancers depending on the exposure intensity. The number of patients examined was high enough according to statistical rules that the effects of other factors (such as use of DECT phones) should be normalised across the inner area and outer area groups. From experience the disruption caused by a statistical confounding factor is in the range between 20% and 30%. Such a factor could therefore in no way explain the 300% increase in new cancer cases. If structural factors such as smoking or excessive alcohol consumption are unevenly distributed between the different groups this should be visible from the specific type of cancers to have developed (ie lung, pharyngeal or oesophageal). In the study inner area there were two lung cancers (one smoker, one non-smoker), and one in the outer area (a smoker), but no oesophageal cancers. This rate of lung cancer is twice what is statistically to be expected and cannot be explained by a confounding factor alone. None of the patients who developed cancer was from a family with such a genetic propensity. Through the many years experience of the GPs involved in this study, the social structures in Naila are well known. Through this experience we can say there was no significant social difference in the examined groups that might explain the increased risk of cancer. The type and number of the diagnosed cancers are shown in Table 7. In the inner area the number of cancers associated with blood formation and tumour controlling endocrine systems (pancreas), were more frequent than in the outer area (77% inner area and 69% outer area). From Table 7, the relative risk of getting breast cancer is significantly increased to 3.4. The average age of patients that developed breast cancer in the inner area was 50.8 years. In comparison, in the outer area the average age was 69.9 years, approximately 20 years less. In Germany the average age for developing breast cancer is about 63 years. The incidence of breast cancer has increased from 80 per 100,000 in the year 1970 to 112 per 100,000 in the year 2000. A possible question for future research is whether breast cancer can be used as a ‘marker cancer’ for areas where there is high contamination from electromagnetic radiation.

The report of Tynes et al. described an increased risk of breast cancer in Norwegian female radio and telegraph operators (20). To further validate the results the data gathered were compared with the Saarland cancer register (21). In this register all newly developed cancers cases since 1970 are recorded for each Bundesland. These data are accessible via the Internet. Patents that suffer two separate tumours were registered twice, which increases the overall incidence up to 10%. In this Type of tumour (organ) no. of tumours found total expected incidence per 100,000 ratio inner: outer breast 8 5.6 112 5:3 ovary 1 1.1 23 0:1 prostate 5 4.6 101 2:3 pancreas m 3 f 2 0.6 0.9 14 18 2:1 1:1 bowel m 4 f 0 3.7 4.0 81 81 2:2 0:0 skin melanoma m 1 f 0 0.6 0.7 13 14 1:0 0:0 lung m 3 f 0 3.6 1.2 79 24 2:1 0:0 kidney m 2 f 1 1.0 0.7 22 15 1:1 1:0 stomach m 1 f 1 1.2 1.1 27 23 0:1 0:1 bladder m 1 f 0 2.0 0.8 44 16 0:1 0:0 blood m 0 f 1 0.6 0.7 14 15 0:0 1:0 Table 7 :

Summary of tumours occurring in Naila, compared with incidence expected from the Saarland cancer register 6 umwelt·medizin·gesellschaft | 17 | 4/2004 register there is no location-specific information, for instance proximity to cell phone transmission masts. The data in the cancer register therefore reflect no real control group but rather the effect of the average radiation on the total population. From the Saarland cancer register for the year 2000 the incidence of new cancer cases was 498 per 100,000 for men and 462 per 100,000 for women. When adjusted for age and sex one would expect a rate of between 480 and 500 per 100,000 in Naila. For the years 1999 to 2004 there were 21 new cases of cancer among 967 patients. The expected number was 24 cases per 1,000 patients. The results of the study are shown graphically in Fig. 3. The bars of the chart represent the number of new cancer cases per 1,000 patients in the separate areas, over the five years (bars 2 to 4). The first bar represents the expected number from the Saarland cancer register. In spite of a possible underestimation, the number of newly developed cancer cases in the inner area is more than the expected number taken from the cancer register, which represents the total population being irradiated. The group who had lived during the past five years within a distance of 400 m from the cellular transmitter have a two times higher risk of developing cancer than that of the average population. The relative risk of getting cancer in the inner area compared with the Saarland cancer register is 1.7 (see to Table 7). Conclusion The result of this retrospective study in Naila shows that the risk of newly developing cancer was three times higher among those patients who had lived during past ten years (1994-2004), within a distance of 400m from the cellular transmitter, in comparison to those who had lived further away. Cross-sectional studies can be used to provide the decisive empirical information to identify real problems. In the 1960s just three observations of birth deformities were enough to uncover what is today an academically indisputable Thalidomide problem. This study, which was completed without any external financial support is a pilot project. Measurements of individual exposure as well as the focused search for further side effects would provide a useful extension to this work, however such research would need the appropriate financial support.

The concept of this study is simple and can be used everywhere, where there it a long-term electromagnetic radiation from a transmitting station. The results presented are a first concrete epidemiological sign of a temporal and spatial connection between exposure to GSM base station radiation and cancer disease. These results are, according to the literature relating to high frequency electromagnetic fields, not only plausible and possible, but also likely. From both an ethical and legal standpoint it is necessary to immediately start to monitor the health of the residents living in areas of high radio frequency emissions from mobile telephone base stations with epidemiological studies. This is necessary because this study has shown that it is no longer safely possible to assume that there is no causal link between radio frequency transmissions and increased cancer rates.

Acknowledgements Our thanks go to all those involved in developing this study, in particular, Herrn Professor Frentzel-Beyme for his advice on all the epidemiological questions. (Received 14.09.2004; Accepted 08.10.2004) Footnotes (1) HAIDER, M., KUNDI, M., KNASMÜLLER. S., HAIDER,T., GROLL KNAPP, E. & G. OBERMEIER (1993): Medizinisch-hygienische Untersuchungen und Beurteilungen der Kurzwellensendeanlage Moosbrunn, Institut für Umwelthygiene,Universität Wien. (2) ABELIN, T., ALTPETER, E.S., PFLUGER, D.H., KREBS, T., KÄNEL, J.V., STÄRK, K. & C. GRIOT (1995): Gesundheitliche Auswirkungen des Kurzwellensenders Schwarzenburg, BEW Schriftenreihe Studie Nr. 56 (BEW: Bundesamt für Energiewirtschaft). (3) MASKARINEC, G., COOPER, J. & L. SWYGERT (1994): Investigation of increased incidence in childhood leukemia near radio towers in Hawaii: Preliminary observations, J. Environ. Pathol.Toxicol. and Oncol. 13: 33-37. (4) HOCKING, B., GORDON, IR., GRAIN HL. et al. (1996): Cancer Incidence and Mortality and Proximity to TV-Towers. Med. J. Australia 165, 11-12: 601-605. 24.2 21.8 40.6 13.2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Saarland* Naila** Inner area Outer area no. of newly diagnosed tumour patients Expected no. of new cancers in Saarland predicted by the Saarland incidence register Total cases in the Naila study area * ** Fig. 3 : Number of new cancer cases 1999 to 2004, adjusted for age and gender, calculated for the 5,000 patient years umwelt·medizin·gesellschaft | 17 | 4/2004 7 (5) DOLK, H., SHADDICK, G.,WALLS, P., GRUNDY, C., THAKRAR, B., KLEINSCHMIDT, I. & P. ELLIOT (1997a):Cancer Incidence Near Radio and Television Transmitters in Great Britain, Part 1. Sutton Coldfield Transmitter, Am. J. Epidemiol. 145: 1-9. (6) DOLK, H., ELLIOT, G., SHADDICK, G., WALLS, P. & B. THAKRAR (1997b): Cancer Incidence Near Radio and Television Transmitters in Great Britain, Part 2. All High Tower Transmitters, Am. J. Epidemiol. 145: 10-17. (7) CHERRY, N. (1999): Critism of the proposal to adopt the ICNIRP guidelines for cellsites in New Zealand, ICNIRP Guideline Critique, Lincoln University, Environmental Management and Design Division, Canterbury, NZ. (8) MICHELOZZI, P., CAPON, A., KIRCHMAYER, U., FORASTIERE, F., BIGGERI, A., BARCA, A. & C.A.PERUCCI (2001):Department of Epidemiology.Local Health Authority RME Rom, Italy. (9) GOLDSMITH, JR. (1997): European EpiMarker 2(4): 4-7; Lilienfeld 1978 Final report US Dept. of State, NTIS PB288163, 1978. (10) SANTINI, R., SANTINI, P., DANZE, J. M., LE RUZ, P. & SEIGNE,M. (2002): Symptoms experienced by people living in vicinity of cell phone base stations: I. Incidences of distance and sex, Pathol. Biol. 50: 369-373. (11) KUNDI, M. (2002): Erste Ergebnisse der Studie über Auswirkungen von Mobilfunk-Basisstationen auf Gesundheit und Wohlbefinden. Bericht des Instituts für Umwelthygiene der Universität Wien. (12) NAVARRO EA., SEGURA J., PORTOLES M., GOMEZPERRETTA de MATEO C. (2003): Das Mikrowellensyndrom: Eine vorläufige Studie in Spanien. Electromagnetic Biology an Medicine (früher: Electro- and Magnetobiology) 22(2): 161- 169,www.grn.es/electropolucio/TheMicrowaveSyndrome.doc. (13) BROCKHAUS (1973): abc Physik, VEB F.A. Brockhaus Verlag, Leipzig: 991 ff. (14) EGER, H., HAGEN, K.U., LUCAS, B., VOGEL, P. & H. VOIT (2004): Einfluss der räumlichen Nähe von Mobilfunksendeanlagen auf die Krebsinzidenz,Tabellarischer Teil, unveröffentlicht, Naila (15) Regulierungsbehörde für Post und Telekom (oJ): Standortbescheinigungen, (16) ECOLOG-INSTITUT (2003): Bestimmung der Exposition von Personengruppen, die im Rahmen des Projektes “Querschnittsstudie zur Erfassung und Bewertung möglicher gesundheitlicher Beeinträchtigungen durch die Felder von Mobilfunkbasisstationen” untersucht werden, Berichtszeitraum: 1.2.2003 bis 31.5.2003, Förderkennzeichen: StSch 4314, ECOLOG-Institut für sozial-ökologische Forschung und Bildung gGmbH, Hannover. (17) KLEINBAUM, D.G., KLEIN, M. (2002): Logistic Regression - A. Self - learning text, Springer Verlag (18) AG BEVÖLKERUNGSBEZOGENER KREBSREGISTER IN DEUTSCHLAND (Hrsg.) (2004):Krebs in Deutschland, 4. überarb., akt.Ausgabe, Arbeitsgemeinschaft bevölkerungsbezogener Krebsregister in Deutschland in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Robert Koch-Institut, Saarbrücken. (19) LEGATOR, M.S. & B. STRAWN (1998): Umwelt-Risiko: Chemie, Haug-Verlag. (20) TYNES, I., HANNEVIK, M., ANDERSEN, A., VISTNES, AI. & HALDORSEN T. (1996): Incidence of breast cancer in Norwegian female radio and telegraph operators. Cancer Causes Control 7: 197-204. (21) www.krebsregister.saarland.de Kontakt: Dr. med. Klaus Uwe Hagen Birgitt Lucas Peter Vogel Dr. med.Helmut Voit Korrespondenz: Dr. med.Horst Eger Marktplatz 16 95119 Naila Tel.: 09282-1304 horst.eger@arcormail.de

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If you can explain any of the above in your own words using 300 words or less I will donate £10 to the charity of choice.

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I'm sure that the normal everyday Navy guys do their jobs and tasks to the best of their ability but there are things that happen either above their pay grade or concealed and kept secret so that minimal damage is kept as contained as far as possible.

The following shows a research report by the NMRI Naval Medical Research in 1971

http://humansarefree.com/2019/06/proof-us-govt-lied-about-5g-navy.html?m=0&fbclid=IwAR2ZbWjx7S1657KMj0RpgYS8IFCfTFnMt5LXFKvhzYoV-anSIKCE4IkGvkM

 

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2 minutes ago, RIchard Britten said:

If you can explain any of the above in your own words using 300 words or less I will donate £10 to the charity of choice.

Stop being lazy and wanting people to research things for you. Like looking after a big kid. You seem to do nothing all day apart from whinge and write mindless pathetic comments on here as you don't appear to have a social life, so read it

People asked for some info and a small percentage is given. If you can't be arsed reading it, then don't knock the people giving you the information because of your own inadequacy and mood swings

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7 minutes ago, manxy said:

Stop being lazy and wanting people to research things for you. Like looking after a big kid. You seem to do nothing all day apart from whinge and write mindless pathetic comments on here as you don't appear to have a social life, so read it

People asked for some info and a small percentage is given. If you can't be arsed reading it, then don't knock the people giving you the information because of your own inadequacy and mood swings

You have absolutely zero understanding of what you are posting.

For all you know it could be a recipe for a really good chicken broth or directions to the nearest dogging site.

I will increase my offer to £20 if you can explain the above word salad in your own words.

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1 hour ago, manxy said:

Stop being lazy and wanting people to research things for you. Like looking after a big kid. You seem to do nothing all day apart from whinge and write mindless pathetic comments on here as you don't appear to have a social life, so read it

People asked for some info and a small percentage is given. If you can't be arsed reading it, then don't knock the people giving you the information because of your own inadequacy and mood swings

Richard is not being lazy.  

We want to know that you understand what you have copied and pasted.  I could copy of paste pages on Quantum Dynamics and Chaos Theory whilst not understanding one word of it yet say that it supports my argument that the sky is falling down.  

If you are going to post technical details you should be able to interpret what is being said.  

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3 hours ago, manxy said:

Stop being lazy and wanting people to research things for you. Like looking after a big kid. You seem to do nothing all day apart from whinge and write mindless pathetic comments on here as you don't appear to have a social life, so read it

People asked for some info and a small percentage is given. If you can't be arsed reading it, then don't knock the people giving you the information because of your own inadequacy and mood swings

Fair comment "Manxy" , as for the offer of donating to a charity , well it's not  the first time he's made a similar offer (and failed to deliver:lol:).

Just saying :flowers:

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9 hours ago, manxman1980 said:

Richard is not being lazy.  

We want to know that you understand what you have copied and pasted.  I could copy of paste pages on Quantum Dynamics and Chaos Theory whilst not understanding one word of it yet say that it supports my argument that the sky is falling down.  

If you are going to post technical details you should be able to interpret what is being said.  

FFS Its like looking at a parrot and I used to have a respect for the RN, but you're an absolute tool and discredit the people you last allegedly served for. I know they're not all like you as I've met a few who were decent and good fun, but you're somewhat twisted. Go buy a dinghy and try to relax

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6 hours ago, manxy said:

FFS Its like looking at a parrot and I used to have a respect for the RN, but you're an absolute tool and discredit the people you last allegedly served for. I know they're not all like you as I've met a few who were decent and good fun, but you're somewhat twisted. Go buy a dinghy and try to relax

What the hell?

I am trying to help you present a coherent argument and asking if you understand the technical detail you have copied and pasted.

Your childish little outburst really confirms that you do not understand it.

I appreciate that you have concerns over 5G and that is fine but you need to understand the subject before you can preach about it.

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Posted (edited)
4 hours ago, manxman1980 said:

What the hell?

I am trying to help you present a coherent argument and asking if you understand the technical detail you have copied and pasted.

Your childish little outburst really confirms that you do not understand it.

I appreciate that you have concerns over 5G and that is fine but you need to understand the subject before you can preach about it.

Maybe I'm wrong about you and you're not like some of the jerks out there who say black if I say white and so on as they P me off and have changed my tack after one of the admins called me a snowflake. 

To write it down takes ages, but this video explains it a lot better than I could. I think you'll understand this video quite quickly and probably a decent one to explain differences of 4G / 5G to others. If you have no beef to grind with me, then I hope you'll see the video in a positive light. Personally, I think we should remain on 4G as the waveforms are not as tight.

 

 

Edited by manxy

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 you need to understand the subject before you can preach about it.

No, that's the old way. 

Now, you look on eg facebook to find like-minded concerned who will direct you to resources that match and feed your preconception which you can then distribute at will.

It's supercharged confirmation bias.

 

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Personally, I think we should remain on 4G as the waveforms are not as tight.

I might agree but can you explain how waveforms are 'tighter' if 5G might happen to use a lower frequency to 4G or are you also considering other stuff like bandwith? :unsure:

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